Taking Legal Action to Split Communal Property

When you and your spouse have decided to end your marriage, you both may face the prospect of dividing up your shared property. You can legally retain ownership of anything you brought into the marriage. However, assets and income you gained during the time you were married is subject to being divided equally between you both.

However, deciding who gets what and whether or not property is a marital asset can be a contentious undertaking. You may go into the divorce relatively amicable. As the process gets underway, you both may find yourself fighting over assets. By hiring a lawyer to file your case, review your income and assets, and work out a marital settlement agreement tampa petitioners like you could resolve your divorce in a relatively fast manner.

Free Consultation

As someone who is leaving your marriage, you may not have a lot of money at your disposal. After all, you are going from having two incomes to rely on to just yours. You may not have a lot of cash reserves to waste when filing for divorce.

You can save money by taking advantage of a free consultation that most attorneys offer to prospective clients. This meeting gives you a chance to ask how you can file your case, what kind of money it might cost you, and how you can pay the bill if you get a settlement from the other spouse.

Once you know the financial aspects of filing for divorce, you can then decide if or when you want to pursue the case. You also will know how much you need to budget right now for actually filing the case in court.

Filing for divorce is never an easy choice. However, you can make it simpler by learning what it will cost you now and in the coming weeks and months. You may be able to divide up assets and get a settlement you are entitled to as a lower earning spouse. You can find out more and set up a free consultation by going to the website of the attorney today.

Telehealth Services: How it is Influencing the Job Ratio in the Health Sector

In an era where technology development has transformed the way we connect and communicate, an efficient system of healthcare has become possible to be altered. Nowadays, it is possible for a doctor or a physician to provide consultation and healthcare without being in the same room or even in the same region, and one of the forms of a system that makes this happen is telehealth. Telehealth or also known as telemedicine is a term for a telecommunication technology system that allows healthcare professionals such as doctors and physician to have an online consultation and engage in a long distance monitoring. The data of the patients also can be accessed by any authorized users regardless of their regions, making collaboration between specialist can be done remotely. But with its digital platform, how can telehealth influence the job ratio in the health sector? The question will be answered below.

The System

Telehealth might be a healthcare system but it cannot work without a specialist or a real human behind it. That’s why recruiting credible healthcare professionals are needed to fulfil the demands of remote healthcare services. It is reported from The U.S. Department of Education that the demand of the careers in telehealth has been invested by the government. It is ensured that the government will give adequate training for any individuals that would be accepted into the programs to increase the operation of telemedicine networks industry.

According to NEJM, telemedicine also allows specialist at universities to expand their work and offerings in underserved rural areas. By having this program, many junior apprentices who are qualified can get more experience in their field. It is including the rural and remote communities as well that maybe lack of medical infrastructure.

In these communities, many new jobs are available at clinics and many smaller institutions can connect patients with doctors through the telehealth system. It is true that a professional clinician is necessary to manage this system but a support staff such as IT staffs will also be required so that the system will run smoothly. That’s why telehealth could increase the job ratio and influence the change in the recruitment system.

The use of telehealth digital health system has made digital employment for healthcare professions a thing. It is an employment opportunity using technology and equipment management that is also adopted by the telemedicine technology. This helps many clinics to hire an individual that is qualified for administrative operation and healthcare services from others area. It can also filters individual based on their special skills and makes the process of recruitment more efficient.

In Missouri times, it is stated that telemedicine technologies has expanded globally around the world and brings the same employment opportunities. It is stated that over 22.000 jobs have been created in Colombia after using this digital telemedicine initiative. The effect of digital telemedicine initiative is not only affecting the improvement of health care capabilities but also creating new opportunities for the community of healthcare professional as well. So does it increase the job ratio? It does, with a digital futuristic system, telehealth brings health care as well as healthcare associate closer with no barriers.

How to Choose a Diet That Helps Animals

There are a lot of ways that you can help animals. You could, for example, volunteer at an animal shelter, foster pets who are waiting to be adopted, or donate to a non-profit. But one of the most impactful ways – as well as one of the easiest ways – to help animals around the world is by making smarter and kinder eating choices.

Royalty Free Photo

Consider Going Plant-Based

By now, with all of the studies on nutrition, and all of the news about climate change, you’ve undoubtedly heard about the plant-based diet. This is a diet that eliminates all animal products, and it’s easier than ever to follow this healthy way of eating. Of course, there are loads of resources and forums online that you can turn to, but you can also get valuable advice from a licensed dietitian and nutritionist.

There are many benefits associated with eliminating meat, poultry, fish, eggs, dairy, and any other products that come from animals. For example, a plant-based diet can help reduce your risk of developing a range of diseases, such as diabetes, cancer, and heart problems. It can also help you slim down if you’re overweight, and it’s a great way to increase your intake of vitamins, minerals, fiber, and antioxidants that support overall health. And, don’t worry, there is plenty of protein to be had when you consume a plant-based diet!

How a Plant-Based Diet Helps Animals

By following a diet that’s focused on plants, rather than animals, it’s obvious that you’ll be saving animals. Because you won’t be consuming meat, you won’t be contributing to inhumane farming practices, and you won’t be contributing to animals being sent to the slaughterhouse. All you have to do to discover the horrors that farm animals go through is a simple internet search. Many undercover investigations at farms and slaughterhouses have proven for many years that what is most common in animal agriculture, is horrific conditions and abuse.

By changing the way that you eat and following a whole-foods, plant-based diet, you can get all of the nutrition that you need while indulging in a wide range of flavors. At the same time, you’ll be reducing the demand for animal products, so producers will need to turn to other modes of making money, such as investing in plant-based meat and dairy alternatives – something that many brands have already done in order to keep up with consumer demand around the globe.

The Plant-Based Diet Also Helps Wildlife

Following a plant-based diet does even more to help animals because it can also support wildlife. When you consider the immense amount of space required for factory farms and slaughterhouses, as well as the land that’s cleared for grazing free-range animals, and the pollution that’s caused by animal agriculture, you begin to understand the environmental impact that an animal-based diet has. Ranchers even go so far as to kill wildlife to protect their farm animals. And let’s not forget about overfishing, which is taking its toll on the oceans.

It’s clear to see that there are many great reasons to choose a compassionate diet to help animals every day, so go ahead and give it try.  

5 Humane Ways to Rid your Home of Mice

Nothing is worse than the irritating sound of mice in the attic, and nothing shames a host during a party like guests spotting a mouse in the living room. It’s unfortunate that mice don’t discriminate where they choose to live, so even homes that are more expensive are not immune to getting invaded by mice. They are unhygienic, carry diseases, gnaw electricity and internet cables, and damage walls and get into the food in your pantry.


If you have been trying to get rid of mice, you must have established that this isn’t the easiest thing to do since they are small enough to squeeze through the tiniest of openings, and can climb and make nests in areas that you can’t even access, not to mention they are prolific breeders. Some people hate mice so much that all they think of is poisoning and killing them without considering how inhumane it is to kill them in such a horrible way. If you can’t imagine yourself doing such a thing, then you must then find alternative ways of getting them out of your home, and keeping them from returning. This can involve hiring rodent control exterminators that will remove the mice in a humane way, or you can try these alternatives:


  1. Smart Mouse Traps

    Smart trapping, or live trapping, is a technique that enables homeowners to catch mice without killing or injuring them. It involves mice holding cells that are built like small houses with doors the size of an adult mouse. All you do is place cheese or peanut butter inside of them as bait, and once the mouse enters it and eats the bait, the door snaps shut trapping the rodent inside. You can then set it free at a location away from your home, wash the trap, and then reuse it. Just don’t make the mistake of freeing them near a dumpster where they can multiply and come back to your home.

    Note: Some smart traps are spacious enough to trap and hold more than 30 mice at once.

    2. Ultrasonic Noises

    If you don’t want to trap then release the mice, why not irritate them with weird noises until they run away? There are mice repelling devices which make noises that are only audible to rodents so you’ll never hear a thing. You can buy one for less than $20 and plug it near the area where you suspect the mice are nesting.

  2. Repulsive Predator Smells

    Mice, just like other rodents, have a strong sense of smell which they use to detect the presence of predators within their space. You can use this against them by placing used kitty litter strategically around the home, giving them a false alarm that there are predators everywhere. If you don’t own a cat, then don’t worry because there are many chemicals out there which imitate the scent of cats. These include mothballs, ammonia solution, and peppermint, all of which will scare mice away when placed near their nests. You will, however, need to replace them regularly as the scent fades away with time.
  3. Rodent Strobe Lights

    Most rodents hate when high-intensity lights flash around their nests. Rodent strobe lights build on this concept and make the home very uncomfortable for the mice. You will need to install several of these devices around their favorite hiding areas such as the attic, dark rooms, and food storage locations, and keep them on for both day and night until you are sure the mice are gone. While you’re at it, ensure that all rooms in the home are well organized to eliminate the chance of the mice relocating their nests from the attic, for example, to another area within the home.

  4. Sealing Up their Entry Points

    Once the rodents are out of your home then you need to make sure they don’t return by sealing up any suspected entry points. You probably have tried this method already, but did you do it the right way? If you sealed everywhere but left an opening as small as half an inch, then you didn’t completely prevent them from finding a way back in. It could be the space under your exterior doors, plumbing spaces, or where cables from the exterior enter the house. You will achieve better results by closing all the doors and windows, switching off the lights to make the interior completely dark, and then noting all the light openings. Seal them with wire mesh or, in the case of door openings, replace the weather-strip material.

    While there are many ways to rid your home of mice, the five that we have discussed are both effective and humane. They are proof that you don’t have to be cruel to animals in order to keep them under control. One last tip: keep your home interiors and exteriors tidy at all times as this will significantly reduce the breeding areas for rodents.

    Sources:


https://www.mnn.com/your-home/at-home/blogs/5-humane-critter-catchers
https://www.nytimes.com/2000/10/01/realestate/your-home-eliminating-hospitality-for-rodents.html
https://www.express.co.uk/life-style/property/966699/how-to-get-rid-of-mice-in-the-home-pest-control
https://www.humanepestcontroltips.com/rodent-strobe.shtml

Different Humane Ways to Remove Wildlife from your Attic

If you have ever had to deal with an unwanted animal in your attic, you know that simply shooing them away is hardly enough to get them to leave without coming back. Even if you are an animal lover, having a raccoon or rats in your attic can be annoying and even dangerous. You constantly have to deal with strange noises and if they decide to chew their way through your attic, you could be looking at thousands of dollars’ worth of damage.

Calling a wildlife removal expert may help you get rid of the problem, but make sure whoever you call only removes them in a humane fashion. If however you are a DIY kind of person that thinks they can tackle the job themselves, then here are a few suggestions that will help you eliminate the unwanted guests without harming them:

1. Know your enemy

Different animals will require different methods to get rid of. The first step is to determine the species of the animal inhabiting the attic. The easiest way to know which animal is in your attic is by the noises it makes. Scampering or scurrying noises coupled with gnawing and squeaking at night shows the presence of rodents like rats or squirrels. Purrs, whimpers, growls, screams, and hisses indicate that you might have a raccoon problem. You can also check the openings where the animals are getting in and out to get an idea of the size of the animal.

2. Make them know they are not welcome

Once you know what you’re dealing with, it’s time to show them that they are not welcome. When animals inhabit your attic, they are usually looking for a safe, warm, and dark place to stay especially if they want to have babies. As such, your job is to transform your attic into the worst place possible for the animals to call home. Here are some effective tactics to convince your furry visitors that they moved to the wrong place:

a) Predator smell – Nothing will have pests running faster than the thought of being trapped with a dangerous animal out to kill them. Place a used dog or cat blanket as close as possible to the area where the animals are living in your attic. The smellier the blanket the better. You can even soak it in dog or cat urine, or purchase fox urine for even better results.

b) Make a lot of noise – You can’t afford to leave the animals alone. If they get comfortable, they could multiply easily so you need to keep them on their paws. Periodically, go into your attic and make some noise. Blow whistles, clang pots and pans, honk air horns and create as much chaos as possible. You can even have a wireless stereo up there playing loud rock music whenever you suspect they’re there. Make sure you are making the noise during the sleeping times of the animals, but be careful when setting this up since some of the animals, like raccoons, can be aggressive when provoked.

c) Turn on the lights – The next step is to make sure the attic is well-lit at all times, day and night.

3. The wait

Once you’ve utilized all these scare tactics, it’s time to give the animals some time to move out. This should happen within 48 hours. If the animal had babies, you need to give her time to get her babies moved to a new location. If you don’t, they will never leave and will force their way back into your attic just to get their babies.

4. Use traps

If you’ve tried the above tactics and the animal still refuses to leave, you may need to use a trap. There are currently many types of traps available for purchase that will work on different animals without harming them. However, trapping should only be used as a last resort particularly for raccoons or squirrels that have babies. Also make sure you check the traps daily just so you don’t starve them to death by trapping them to where they can’t get food or water.

5. Ensure they don’t get back

Once you’ve gotten rid of all the unwanted guests, you need to ensure they never find a way to get back into the attic. Block all possible entryways with strong netting or thick boards, and trim back tree branches that the animals may have used to jump onto the roof.

Sources

http://www.wildlifehotline.com/welcome/mammals/raccoons/evicting-raccoons/

http://www.ftwl.org/node/28

https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/04/160424-raccoons-animals-science-washington-wildlife/

Humane Methods of Wildlife Control

If you’ve had a problem with wildlife invading in your property, then you know how frustrating it is to deal with them. They like sneaking into homes with hollow spaces beneath porches, attics, basements, wall insulations, and other warm pockets. Some animals can scratch through weak walls and even erect nests around your property. The worst you can imagine is when they begin to chew your property and also dig up your lawn. Trying to remove or control them on your own is not easy, so whether they are rats, mice, squirrels, raccoons, bats, opossums or other dangerous animals, it is vital to contact a wildlife control professional for help.

Even though wildlife invasion is a nuisance and can deprive you of your comfort and safety, it is recommended to remove them through humane ways. For instance, certain states cannot allow you to trap and locate animals without proper legal permits. Below are some of the suggested humane methods for wildlife removal from around homes.

Exclusion by Net-Proofing

It involves the use of a gnaw-proof netting that helps to exclude animals from entering a home. It doesn’t include any trapping whatsoever. A mesh can also be installed by burying it underneath the soil to help bar burrowing animals from finding their way in. This method is excellent if you’re planning to prevent damage such animals cause to gardens. A vinyl-coated mesh is stronger and preferable.

Use of Frightening Devices

This is a non-chemical way of eradicating animals from invading your home. Frightening devices come in different types including visual, audio, audio-visual and biological. Visual devices are things like effigies or plastic owls. These devices have scary eyes that control unwanted animals like raccoons and squirrels. Devices that move are very effective. A spotlight with laser pointer or pistol can also be used to drive away animals at night. When using these devices, it is advisable to use them in safe and humane ways. They should not point directly to the eyes. The beams should point parallel to the ground.

The use of audio-visual devices that use both sight and sound are excellent for rural settings. They can disperse birds from living on building tops and erecting nests.

Use of Sonic Net Technology

This is a new method of deterring animals and birds. It involves the use of directional speakers that scare away problematic birds that are prone to building nests on the property. The sound doesn’t have to be so loud. It uses a combination of waveforms that is commonly called colored noise. It also helps to reduce losses caused in agricultural fields and gardens.

Use of All-Natural Repellents

Use of harsh chemicals to kill wildlife isn’t good either. With the introduction of organic repellents, you can flush out and control animals around your home safely and naturally. However, you need to understand the type of animals on your property. If it is birds, then ensure that the state or federal government do not protect them before you remove them. To control unprotected birds, you can use methods such as propane noisemakers, plastic bird spikes, liquid repellents, reflective bird tapes and more. The materials you use should be EPA-registered.

Repellents contain ingredients that aren’t pleasant, and birds cannot tolerate although they are eco-friendly. Avian Migrate is the best since it is eco-friendly and non-lethal. A portable spray can be used to disperse the solution in the habitat where birds live.

Propane noisemakers aren’t harmful to birds. However, they can be a bit pricier and need proper maintenance. Bird spikes are excellent and can be used around building ledges. Unlike steel counterparts, plastic spikes are very safe.

Habitat Modification Method

Modifying the habitat of these animals can also help flush them out for good. Habitat modification can limit the access of these animals to requirements such as shelter, food, and water. Seeds and pet food should be kept in well-sealed containers to help remove their sources of food.

Cracks and holes can be sealed to prevent animals from gaining access to the property. It helps to control animals such as bats and rodents. Firewood, garden debris, and other building supplies should be kept above the ground to limit hiding grounds.

Bottom Line

Animal invasion can be a severe annoyance. Apart from posing a danger to your health, they also damage your property. In case you’ve identified wild animals in your property, then the above are the humane ways that are recommended for safe removal. You can also get a consultation from a professional.

References:

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuisance_wildlife_management#Control_methods

http://wildlifecontroltraining.com/training/wildlife-control-methods/

 

Signs That You Are Ready To Have a Pet and Care For It Appropriately

A pet can help make a family complete as pets truly become a part of the family over the course of time. The loss of a pet can be more devastating than anything as we often look to our pets for comfort. Pets of all kinds can tell the emotions that you are having so many do actually try to console you if you are upset for some reason. The truth is that not all people are ready for a pet or deserve a pet as animal abuse is much more rampant than many people think. The following are signs that you and your family can have a pet that will be cared for appropriately.

It Won’t Be A Strain Financially

Themoneyalert.com notes that if you are going to have a pet that you need to be able to take care of it health wise and this costs money. Vet bills can be enormous for even some of the most routine of procedures if they are invasive. There are going to be some pets like dogs that are going to eat quite a bit. This gets expensive when the dog needs a special type of food due to having a sensitive stomach. For those families that are living paycheck to paycheck, a pet it just not right for you at this time.

Your Kids Are Good With Animals

The last thing that you want is to have to put your pet down due to it attacking your child. Certain children and animals simply do not mesh as there are kids that do not understand how to handle pets. If you have children that often times abuse animals you need to avoid getting a pet as a pet cannot tell you when it is being abused. After this you need to get your child mental help as abuse towards animals is caused by an underlying mental issue.

You Have Enough Room

There are going to be certain breeds of dogs that are just too large to live in an apartment. Even if they can live there they could tear the entire apartment up due to boredom or excess energy. This does not mean that you cannot have a dog in an apartment but you need to make sure that they get their daily exercise no matter what. If you are living in a studio do not opt for a Husky or Great Dane, but rather get a smaller dog that thinks the studio is their palace.

You Have Knowledge Or Are Willing To Learn About The Pet

Getting a pet that you know nothing about is fine as long as you are willing to learn how to care and train the pet. The internet allows people to learn things that would have taken firsthand experience in the past. You can learn to housetrain your dog through YouTube videos rather than having to send them to an obedience class. Utilize these resources that technology has given you if you need to learn a bit more about your pet.

A pet can change a family dynamic so make sure this is understood. Pets are valuable to emotional health and this is something to keep in mind as well.

How To Teach Your Children How To Interact With Dogs and Situations To Avoid

Teaching your children how to interact with dogs is one of the first lessons a child learns especially if they have a family pet. The bond between a child and a dog can be a beautiful thing with the dog being the child’s protector. There are situations to avoid with children especially if an older moodier dog is involved. These dogs can tend to snap when bothered so make your child aware that it is a grumpy old dog. The following are situations to avoid as well as how to teach your child to interact with dogs.

Give Respect To Get Respect

A relationship between a dog and human should be established on respect. Gentle petting of the back can help calm a dog down as they might snap if their face is touched first by a child they are not familiar with. Teach your child that if you would not want someone doing it to you then you should not do it to a dog. Messing with a dogs food is the number one thing to teach your child not to do. Some dogs have food aggression so have your child leave a dog alone when they are eating regardless of how friendly they are with the dog.

Do Not Pet A Unfamiliar Dog Without Permission

One thing that can drive a pet owner crazy is a small child touching a dog without permission. The dog could bite trying to protect their owner or from being startled. Tell your children to ask the adult with the dog whether they can pet it. If the person says no it is time to move on but if they say yes they should pet them cautiously. Some children might try to pet a stray dog that they see but let them know they should immediately come inside if they see one. You do not know how a stray dog will react to a child approaching it or running towards it.

Signs of Aggression

There are plenty of signs of aggression that you can teach your child to avoid. Growling or barking are the obvious signs but also if a dog tenses up when approached. The tail wagging generally means the dog welcomes the attention but a tail straight down between the legs is not a great sign. Dogs that might bite should be avoided and your child should know the signs so they can make the appropriate judgment call.

When Bitten Expose To Dogs To Avoid Fear For Life

At times a dog might bite due to no fault of your child and depending on the severity you might need to consult a personal injury law firm. You should not have to pay for medical expenses due to an aggressive dog getting out of their yard. The best thing you can do is expose your child to other dogs showing them that not all dogs will bite. This will help alleviate a pain if you have your child avoid dogs after being bitten. A healthy fear or awareness of dogs is not bad but you do not want it to turn into a phobia.

Knowing How To Deal With a Dog That Has Behavioral Problems

Getting a dog in a family can help a family feel more complete as every tends to love the family pet. For this reason people tend to allow bad behavior from the dog from time to time. There is a chance that your dog’s behavioral problems are becoming too much for you to handle. Coming home to a home that has been destroyed can be as frustrating as anything especially after a long day at work. Pets just like humans can be trained to behave in a certain manner but many people do not know how to start. The following are how to deal with a dog that has behavioral problems.

Do Not Abuse It

Hitting your dog is not going to solve anything and you could be hitting a sick dog. A dog that is house trained going to the bathroom in the house frequently could be a sign of a UTI that needs to be solved. Regardless for the reason of your dog’s behavior hitting them can turn them aggressive especially if they do not know what they have done wrong. You do not want to turn your dog against humans as this can be dangerous when you have specific breeds of dogs that can inflict real damage during an attack.

Pet Insurance

The worst thing that can happen is that your dog attacks a guest of the home or escapes and attacks someone else. A personal acquaintance might sue you or might just want you to cover medical expenses. A random person being attacked nearly always will sue you as they do not deal with you on a day to day basis. A McAllen injury lawyer would deal with your pet insurance company rather than dealing with you personally. If you think there is a chance that your dog bites someone invest in this insurance. You do not want to hire a lawyer for a lengthy legal battle that is sure to cost you thousands of dollars in fees alone.

Find a Professional

Once you have exhausted all of your options to help train your dog to correct their erratic behavior it is time to enlist the help of a professional. Your dog’s behavior is a combination of their instincts, how you treat them, and other environmental factors. Doing something like keeping your body language relaxed around guests can allow your dog to relax as they know they do not have to be in protection mode. If you think that your dog is trying to be dominant over you then it is time to see a professional. Your dog might bite you when disciplined if it thinks it is the alpha of the home. Do research online to see which dog training type you would like your dog to participate in as there are various methods to doing this.

As you can see it is going to be a long road when dealing with a dog that has behavioral problems. “A professional might be able to help you immediately if you do not have the time to train your dog every day,”  – Ethical Frenchie.

 

Pets each week in the Pasadena Humane Society

Listed here are pets each week readily available for adoption in the Pasadena Humane Society now:

Coco (A454828) is really a 2-year-old rabbit who loves to be cuddled and held. He’s a curious bunny who enjoys hopping round the play area, climbing in the steps, and running with the tunnels. He’s searching for any new house to experience in. If you are looking at Coco, visit him in the Pasadena Humane Society.

The adoption fee for rabbits is $35. All rabbits are spayed or neutered and microchipped before you go to their new house.

New adopters will get a no cost health-and-wellness exam from VCA Animal Hospitals, in addition to a goody bag full of here is how to look after your dog.

View photos of adoptable pets at pasadenahumane.org. Adoption hrs are 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. Sunday 9 a.m. to five p.m. Tuesday through Friday and 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Saturday.

Pets might not be readily available for adoption and can’t take place for potential adopters by telephone calls or email.

Paloma (A451821) is really a 2-year-old playful cat who understands how to fetch! Yes, that is correct should you throw toys on her she’ll drive them back again and again. She is another very talkative cat who likes to have lengthy conversations. She’s an amiable cat who loves to invite you in having a hug around the nose and would enjoy sitting alongside yourself on the couch when you read a magazine or watch television. Take a look at much more about Paloma today!

The adoption fee for cats is $75. All cats are spayed or neutered, microchipped, and vaccinated prior to being adopted.

New adopters will get a no cost health-and-wellness exam from VCA Animal Hospitals, in addition to a goody bag full of here is how to look after your dog.

View photos of adoptable pets at pasadenahumane.org. Adoption hrs are 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. Sunday 9 a.m. to five p.m. Tuesday through Friday and 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Saturday.

Pets might not be readily available for adoption and can’t take place for potential adopters by telephone calls or email.